Recurrent miscarriage in the first trimester can have many different causes, including chromosomal disorders of the embryo itself, undiscovered genetic abnormalities in the parents, and infections of the cervix and vagina, especially Clamydia which may reduce fertility and cause loss of pregnancy. More rarely, uterine abnormalities and systemic illnesses may contribute to miscarriage.
Women who experience recurrent miscarriage or repeated
IVF failure often suffer from immunological or haematological disorders that affect early embryo implantation, because the immune system rejects the embryo; thyroiditis and lupus erytomatosus are common causes of immunological disorders. Also, abnormalities of the clotting system negatively affect the development and functioning of the early placenta.
Laboratory investigations are able to pick up irregularities that benefit from pharmaceutical therapy. The most common therapies involve high-dose vitamins, heparin and cortisone. Sometimes additional treatment with immunoglobulins is necessary to help reduce the immunological reaction and thus the rejection of the early embryo.